Martin Kaufmann

Lipid Bilayers Supported by Multi-Stimuli Responsive Polymers

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Kurzfassung in Englisch

Artificial lipid bilayers formed on solid surface supports are widespread model systems to study physical, chemical, as well as biological aspects of cell membranes and fundamental interfacial interactions. The approach to use a thin polymer film representing a cushion for lipid bilayers prevents incorporated membrane proteins from pinning to the support and mimics the native environment of a lipid bilayer in certain aspects of the extracellular matrix and intracellular structures. A key component for cell anchorage to extracellular fibronectin is the transmembrane adhesion receptor alpha(5)beta(1) integrin. Its transport dynamics and clustering behavior plays a major role in the assembly of focal adhesions, which mediate mechanical forces and biochemical signals of cells with their surrounding.
The system investigated herein is envisioned to use extrinsically controlled stimuli-responsive polymer cushions to tune the frictional drag between polymer cushion and mobile membranes with incorporated integrins to actively regulate lipid membrane characteristics. To attain this goal, a temperature- and pH-responsive polymer based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymers containing varying amounts of carboxyl-group-terminated comonomers at different aliphatic spacer lengths (PNIPAAm-co-carboxyAAM) was surface-grafted to a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) anchorage layer. The swelling transitions were characterized using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and found to be tunable over a wide range of temperature and pH. In agreement with the behavior of the polymers in solution, longer alkyl spacers decreased the phase transition temperature T(P) and higher contents of carboxylic acid terminated comonomers increased T(P) at alkaline conditions and decreased T(P) at acidic conditions. Remarkably, the point where the degree of carboxyl group deprotonation balances the T(P)-lowering effect of the alkyl spacer was distinctive for each alkyl spacer length.
These findings illustrate how the local and global balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions along the copolymer chain allows to adjust the swelling transition to temperatures below, comparable, or above those observed for PNIPAAm homopolymers. Additionally, it could be shown that surface-grafting leads to a decrease in T(P) for PNIPAAm homopolymers (7°C) and copolymers (5°C - 10°C). The main reason is the increase in local polymer concentration of the swollen film constrained by dense surface anchorage in comparison to the behavior of dilute free chains in solution. In accordance with the Flory-Huggins theory, T(P) decreases with increasing concentration up to the critical concentration. Biological functionalization of the PNIPAAm-co-carboxyAAm thin films was demonstrated for the cell adhesion ligand peptide cRGD via carbodiimide chemistry to mimic extracellular binding sites for the cell adhesion receptors integrin.
The outcome of QCM-D measurements of cRGD-functionalized surfaces showed a maintained stimuli-responsiveness with slight reduction in T(P). A drying/rehydration procedure of a 9:1 lipid mixture of the cationic lipid dioleoyl-trimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) and the zwitterionic dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) was utilized to form lipid bilayer membranes on PNIPAAm-co-carboxyAAM cushions. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that lipid mobility was distinctively higher (6.3 - 9.6) µm2 s-1 in comparison to solid glass support ((3.0 - 5.9) µm2 s-1). In contradiction to the initial expectations, modulation of temperature and pH led to poor variations in lipid mobility that did not correlate with the PNIPAAm cushion swelling state. The results suggested a weak coupling of the lipid bilayer with PNIPAAm polymer cushions that can be slightly tuned by electrostatic interactions.
The transmembrane adhesion receptor alpha(5)beta(1) integrin was reconstituted into liposomes consisting of DOPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol 2:2:1 for the formation of polymer cushioned bilayers. PNIPAAm- co-carboxyAAM and maleic acid (MA) copolymers were used as cushions, both with the option for cRGD functionalization. On the MA copolymer cushions, fusion of proteoliposomes resulted in supported bilayers with mobile lipids as confirmed by FRAP. However, incorporated integrins were immobile. In an attempt to explain this observation, the medium-sized cytoplasmic integrin domain was accounted to hamper the movement by steric interactions with the underlying polymer chains in conjunction with electrostatic interactions of the cationic cytoplasmic domain with the oppositely charged MA copolymer.
On the PNIPAAm-co-carboxyAAM cushion only a drying/rehydration procedure lead to bilayer formation. However, again the integrins were immobile, presumably due to the harsh treatment during preparation. Nevertheless, the results of the investigated set of PNIPAAm copolymer films suggest their application as temperature- and pH-responsive switchable layers to control interfacial phenomena in bio-systems at different physiological conditions. The PNIPAAm-co-carboxyAAm cushioned bilayer system represents a promising step towards extrinsically controlled membrane – substrate interactions.

weitere Metadaten

Schlagwörter
(Deutsch)
Polymerkissen, Stimuliresponsive Polymerfilme, PNIPAAm, QCM-D, Lipiddoppelschichten, alpha(5)beta(1) Integrin, FRAP
Schlagwörter
(Englisch)
polymer cushion, stimuli responsive polymer films, PNIPAAm, QCM-D, lipid bilayer, alpha(5)beta(1) integrin, FRAP
DDC Klassifikation540
RVK KlassifikationVK 8007
Institution(en) 
HochschuleTechnische Universität Dresden
FakultätFakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften
BetreuerProf. Dr. Carsten Werner
Prof. Dr. Tilo Pompe
GutachterProf. Dr. Carsten Werner
Prof. Dr. Marcus Textor
DokumententypDissertation
SpracheEnglisch
Tag d. Einreichung (bei der Fakultät)24.04.2012
Tag d. Verteidigung / Kolloquiums / Prüfung08.02.2013
Veröffentlichungsdatum (online)25.03.2013
persistente URNurn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-106231

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